Plan for the Rehabilitation of Bhadli Village
as developed by Somaya & Kalappa Consultants
to revise plans provided by the Government:
the modules supplied by the government were adequate and
functional, they were not designed in accordance with the
specific needs of the people. Certain key features were
not given importance and the underlying character of the
village was not incorporated into the design. Hence the
existing plan had to be modified.
five basic criteria that governed the basis of design for
the new housing plan were (i) the character of the village,
(ii) the needs and necessities of the villagers, (iii) the
available space and cost of construction, (iv) need for
structures resistant to seismic activity and climatic extremes,
and (v) the use of indigenous materials and the re-use of
the character of the village:
veranda is essential for the houses because it forms a covered
outdoor seating area and is used for a variety of activities.
Houses that have courtyards can be oriented in such a way
as to avoid direct sunlight, as per site conditions. In
houses that face the street, the verandas form otlas or
possible, the houses should be constructed in two or three
groups of four to five, so that a common gathering space
is created between the houses.
has been observed that the villagers like to decorate the
area on the wall surrounding the doorframe using designs
made from lime, clay and mirrors, and also have niches for
diyas on either side of the door. Hence, adequate space
should be left around the doorframe to accommodate such
with agriculture, bandhni making and handicrafts are the
main professions of the villagers, and adequate provisions
need to be made to accommodate the materials and tools used,
either within the house or outside. The villagers require
space in the courtyard to store the material, work, dry
the cloth, mix dyes and other activities. They prefer not
to carry out these activities inside the house because of
space constraints. In case the house does not have a courtyard,
storage lofts should be provided inside the house.
the villagers cook on wood fire chulhas rather than gas
stoves, the kitchens need to be well ventilated, and a non-mechanical
system for removal of smoke needs to be devised. An alternative
design solution is to replace outer walls of the kitchen
with bamboo or MS jalis that will allow the smoke to escape
and will keep out animals. Sufficient storage and seating
area should be provided in the kitchen.
supply and drainage:
new bore well is being dug after the previous one turned
saline after the earthquake. Water supply is facilitated
by pre-existing PVC pipelines. At certain designated places
in the village, in between groups of houses, hand pumps
should be provided so as to reduce the workload of women.
This also forms a common space for washing and cleaning,
thus concentrating supply and disposal in only a few locations,
thus allowig ease of maintenance.
the bath and toilet blocks in the village, were in one corner
of the courtyard of each house. These blocks had one side
abutting the compound wall and one facing the street. The
water storage for the bath-toilet blocks and other activities
was in an overhead tank, made locally from cut-Hume pipes.
In the absence of toilets, the water was stored in a tank
on the compound wall at a certain height so as to maintain
pressure by gravity. Each toilet will have an individual
soak pit next to it, within the courtyard. The drainage
system consisted of pipelines made from semi-cylindrical
Mangalore tiles that carried the water for five to six feet
and then flushed it into the ground. This system can be
retained in the new plan.
electricity is supplied by two sub-stations, and distribution
is carried out through exposed overhead wiring. A system
of street lighting will be provided.
basic criterion for making a house seismic-proof is to make
it a homogeneous unit. The plinth is made of random rubble
available in the village, and is lined with an r.c.c. plinth
beam, 16 above ground level. Similar to this, three other
r.c.c. beams occur at the sill, lintel and roof base. The
r.c.c. members are interconnected with vertical steel rods
encased in concrete at every T and L junction. The openings
for doors and windows on the top and bottom always end with
an r.c.c. member, thus avoiding cracks during movement of
the base. Shear keys at the base of the plinth, above the
r.c.c. and in between the plinth beam and wall will be added
to avoid displacement.
roof should continue on the sides till the ridge, forming
an r.c.c gable, which in turn supports the roof. Generally,
Mangalore tiles are placed on purlains, rafters and battens
made of wood, which is now replaced by minimum steel angles/pipes.
This system is inadequate because the tiles are not anchored
and any strong wind will lift them off. No cantilever or
overhang should be provided on the gable side of the roof
so as to avoid capture of wind during storms. However, on
the other two sides, the roof can project beyond the walls
to have effective drainage and also to protect the wall.
The last row of Mangalore tiles of the roof overhang should
be screwed down to the batons to avoid uplift by wind.
for ventilation in toilets and store-rooms should be the
minimum size required for the room so as to avoid dust and
the intense heat conditions prevalent in the area. The villagers
prefer to have the openings higher up on the wall using
r.c.c. jalis which allow the exchange of air through small
openings and also keep out birds and rodents.
Also read about:
: A Brief Overview
Village: Rehabilitation Plans
that require repair and upgradation
Village in Pieces - A visual presentation